Culture and History Travel Tour to Tunisia
The list of interesting places in Tunisia would do justice to a country twice as big. From the villages of the stone age, near the oasis of Kebili up scenarios where they filmed part of Star Wars (in Matmata), its landscapes, lush or moles, have seen more action than all the countries of Africa together. After traveling a few days, anyone would agree to let the imagination in the famous Roman ruins of Carthage and El-Jem is almost as immersed in the Aeneid of Virgil and have a drink with Dido, while a day holgazanea the beaches on the north coast were asking what Hannibal was looking away from Tunisia.
Whether the cultural mix of French and Arabic capital or vast extension of the Sahara, which is impressive in Tunisia. After all, three thousand years of history to convince any visitor.
Tunisia best time
In January and February, a period of cold weather and rainy, the hotel prices down. During the warm season from June to August, prices of hotels are increasing, a shortage of rental cars and markets and museums are packed with tourists.
Tunisia Mean festivals and Holidays
The Islamic calendar (which begins with AH, ie, the flight of Mohammed to Medina) is 11 days shorter than the Gregorian. Over the next few years Ras as-Sana, the celebration of Islamic New Year falls in April. Moreover, Moul an-Nabi celebrates the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad around June or July. The festivities include parades in the streets, feasts, drummers and special sweets. Ramadan, commemorating the month when it was revealed to Muhammad the Koran, is held during the ninth month of Islamic calendar (now in December). In deference, the faithful do not eat or drink until after the sun. At the end of Ramadan (Eid al-Fitr) the fasting breaks with visits to friends, feasts and gifts.
Eid al-Adha is the time of the pilgrimage to Mecca that every Muslim must undertake at least once in life. The streets are decorated with colored lights and children wear their best clothes. As a secular festivals, July and August are the months to remember. The main event of the calendar of Tunisia is the Carthage International Festival, which offers performances of music, theater and dance at the restored Roman theater in Carthage. The International Festival of Symphonic Music El Jem is held each July. Festival of classical theater Dougga happens in July and August. After the summer heat, it's International Film Festival of Carthage (the films focusing on African and Middle East), which takes place in October of odd years.
January 1 - New Year
March 20 - Independence Day
March 21 - Youth Day
April 9 - Day of the Martyrs
May 1 - Labor Day
July 25 - Republic Day
August 3 - Fiesta official
August 13 - Women's Day
October 15 - Day of Evacuation
November 7 - Anniversary of access to the chairmanship of Ben Ali
Tunisia Most Attraction Places to Travel
Tunis ( medina )
Compared to the great metropolis of the world, Tunisia is not too impressed. The center is compact and easy to navigate, it is essential for travelers located in the medina and the Ville Nouvelle.
The medina is the historical and cultural heart of modern Tunisia and a place to get an idea of life in the city. Built during the seventh century, it lost its privilege as the center of the capital when the French took over and built their new city by the end of the nineteenth century. One of the oldest attractions of the medina, Zitoun mosque was rebuilt in the ninth century on the original structure of the seventh century. Its builders recycled two hundred columns of the Roman ruins of Carthage for the central prayer hall. Non-Muslims can come dressed in modesty into the yard. The smell will help translate the name of the nearby Souq el-Attarine, the perfumer souk, where shops were fed with aromatic oils and spices. West, the Mosque of Youssef Dey was the first Ottoman-style was built in the City (1616). In nearby Souq el-Berka Muslim corsairs sold slaves.
Also in the medina, the Tourbet el-Bey is a huge mausoleum that houses the remains of many Beysen, princesses, pastors and counselors husseinitas, the guard is an enthusiastic guide. Not far from the Dar Ben Abdallah Museum houses the Center for Popular Arts and Traditions, where the exhibits seem mediocre in contrast to the majestic backdrop of the building. The area is Dar el-Haddad, one of the oldest houses. The Medina was declared Patrimony of Humanity by UNESCO in 1981.
The streets of the ville nouvelle are flanked by buildings full of imprint French wrought iron gates and window slats, elements that give it a European air, accentuated by the terraces of cafes and bakeries. After admiring the colonial architecture, it is worth visiting the Cathedral of St Vincent de Paul, which presents an extraordinarily bizarre amalgam of architectural styles (Gothic, Byzantine and North Africa).
After about 4 miles west of downtown lies the essential Bardo Museum, in the former Bardo Palace, official residence of Beysen husseinitas. In the interior, the collection is divided into sections covering different periods: the Carthaginian, Roman, early times of Christianity and the Arab-Islamic. The Roman part contains one of the best exhibits of mosaics and statues from around the world. You can reach the museum by taxi or tram.
Despite the fascinating history of Carthage and the dominant position it held in the ancient world, the Romans were such demolition work that remains today are somewhat disappointing. Almost all that remains is of Roman origin; any other Punic. There are six areas of interest, and most annoying for the visitor is that they are scattered and far apart from each other. To overcome this problem, you can take line TGM (light rail), which crosses the area, but cautions that, even so, one must walk a lot.
The best starting point is Byrsa hill, which dominates the area and provides an overview from the top. At his feet is the St Louis Cathedral, visible from several miles around. It is a staggering proportions, which was erected by the French in 1890 and dedicated to the king-saint of the thirteenth century, who died on the shores of Carthage, in 1270, during the Eighth Crusade. Although it was deconsecrated and closed for years, has now been restored and opened to the public. The National Museum is the large white building located at the rear of the cathedral, and its exhibits, refurbished, deserve a look. The Punic displays, on the top floor is highly recommended.
The Roman amphitheater in West Byrsa, 15 minutes walk from the museum, was one of the largest in the Empire, but today it is little of its luster. Most of its stones were removed for other construction projects in the following centuries. The set of huge tanks located northeast of the amphitheater was the main water supply for Carthage during the Roman era, is now in ruins and the difficulties of access, among spiny prickly pear, make little effort deserves.
The Baths of Antoninus is located to the south, in the seafront, and primarily impressed by its size and location. The Magon Quarter is another archaeological site near the sea, a few meters south of the baths. Recent excavations have revealed an interesting residential area.
Tofet the sanctuary has attracted considerable interest since it was first excavated in 1921. The Tofet was a place of sacrifice with a cemetery annex, where the children of Carthaginian nobles were killed and burnt to appease the deities Baal Hammon and Tanit. He is currently little more than a plot full of weeds with a few graves.
Sidi Bou Saïd
Sidi Bou Saïd is a whitewash village situated high on a cliff overlooking the Gulf of Tunisia, about 10 km northeast of the capital. It is a delightful place to stroll through its narrow cobbled streets. Its glittering walls are fitted with bars on every window, decorated and painted in an intense blue color, and eye-arched entrances that provide access to patios sprinkled with geraniums and bougainvillea. No one would blame you think you have encountered a tiny Greek island.
The center of activity of the population is its main square, Place Sidi Bou Saïd, lined with cafes, put candy and souvenir shops. The lighthouse, which overlooks the village, stands on the site of a fort of the IX century. There is a small beach nearby and relatively empty.
Cap Bon Peninsula
This fertile peninsula penetrating into the Mediterranean from the north-eastern Tunisia. Geologists speculate the possibility that in the past came to Sicily, forming a land link with Europe is plunged into the sea 30,000 years ago. At present, Cap Bon (especially the beaches of the Southeast around Hammamet and Nabeul) is the leading destination Tunisian tourists arriving with package holidays.
In a summer stroll through the streets of Hammamet is likely to discover ten tourists each neighbor of the people, and the pace never loose, except in the winter and for a short time. Its location on the northern edge of the Gulf of Hammamet is his great asset, and its old medina, which dominates a large area of sandy beach is undoubtedly one of the attractions. It is also a city filled with life, full of nightclubs, restaurants and colorful shops. Everything a visitor could want, except isolation.
The biggest difference between your neighbor and Hammamet, Nabeul, is that the latter has a variety of accommodations, including camping area better organized in the country. The market in Nabeul Friday is one of the liveliest in the country, even though not having an excess of bargains or items of quality.
When it comes to Kelibia have been behind the most popular tourist destinations in Tunisia. In its place will be a tiny town that survives mainly on its fishing fleet, with a few modest and resorts, fabulous beaches and a strong protection of the sixth century which dominates the port.
Halfway between El-Haouaria Kelibia and is Kerkouane town of Carthage, a city founded in the sixth century BC finally destroyed by Roman forces. Was excavated in 1962 and houses a museum these findings, as the princess of Kerkouane, the lid of a wooden coffin carved in the shape of the goddess Astarte.
The small town of El-Haouaria is located below the mountainous tip of Cap Bon. It is a passage with several quiet beaches acceptable, especially in Ras El-Drek, but its main attraction are the caves in the Roman coast, 3 km west of the city. Much of the stone that was used to lift Carthage was extracted from this remarkable complex of yellow sandstone caves. The quarrymen discovered that the quality of the stone was much better at the base of the cliffs on the surface, so it opted to open tunnels. After nearly a thousand years removing sandstone caves are the result today.
The Roman ruins of Dougga, 105 km southwest of the capital, is considered the most spectacular and best preserved of the country. Occupy a prominent position on the edge of the mountains of Tebersouk, overlooking the fertile valley of Oued Kalle, where wheat is grown. The site was occupied until the early 1950, when residents were evacuated to help preserve the ruins.
In Dougga there'sa lot to see and it is worth hiring a licensed guide. The first monument to be seen is the theater, with capacity for 3,500 spectators on the hillside and built in the year 188 AD by one of the wealthy inhabitants of the city. Has been rebuilt and is ideal for light classical theater Dougga Festival which is held in July and August. A little beyond, a trail leads to the temple of Saturn, erected on the site of an earlier temple dedicated to Baal Hammon. Southwest of the theater, a winding road leads to the square of the Winds, where the surface is prepared as an enormous bar and lists the names of twelve winds. Another temple along the plaza to the north, while the market and the capitol are located south and west, respectively.
The Capitol is one of the most remarkable monuments of the country, which was erected in the year 166 AD Six striated columns supporting the portico, which is about eight meters above the ground. The frieze has eroded a little sculpture, rare indeed, which shows the emperor Pius Antonio between the claws of an eagle. Inside there was an enormous statue of Jupiter, whose fragments are now in the Bardo Museum in Tunisia. Near the house of Dionysus and Odysseus was once a sumptuous residence in it was a mosaic showing the last mesmerized by the sirens (now part of the Bardo Museum in the capital).
There are few sights more dazzling that El Jem, the well-preserved ancient coliseum and almost as large as that of Rome, which dwarfs the buildings of the modern city. Built on a plateau halfway between Sousse and Sfax, about 210 km south of the capital, El-Jem can see from several miles around, dominating the entire area.
The coliseum, built between the years 230 and 238 AD, has been used as a defensive position on many occasions. Suffered severe damage in the seventeenth century, when the troops of Mohammed Bey opened a hole in the Western Wall to the departure of members of the local tribesmen who had rebelled against the taxes required. The gap widened further during a rebellion in 1850, but, fortunately, it is now attaches great importance to conservation and has been declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco.
With a capacity for 30,000 people (a figure that exceeds that of the city's population), is one of the most impressive Roman monuments in Africa. Still be higher up the bleachers and watch the sand, or explore the two long subterranean passages that once housed gladiators, animals and unhappy convicts.
Tozeur is one of the most popular stops for passengers, and has been since the period capsiense (around 8000 BC). Its main attractions lie in a labyrinthine old town, an interesting museum and a vast palm grove on the northern tip of Chott el-Jerid. At about 435 km southwest of the capital, the road becomes exciting: the road crosses a Kebili Chott (dried salt lake) for a flyover.
The evocative old part of town, Ouled el-Hadef, was built in the fourteenth century AD to house the El-Hadef clan, which was enriched by the trade caravans. It is a maze of narrow alleys and tiny squares covered and has gained fame for his methods of real brick. There is a small but notable archaeological museum is worth a visit.
In addition to the Bardo Museum in the capital, Dar Charait Museum is another great museum in the country by the worth of the diverted route. It displays a large collection of pottery and antiques. Has an art gallery and rooms made up as replicas of Tunisian life, past and present. Include room for the last bey, a palace decorated, the baths (hammam) and a Bedouin tent. The guards of the museum, dressed as servants of the Bey, they collaborate with their appearance into the environment.
The palm groves of Tozeur is the second largest of Tunisia, with nearly two hundred thousand palm trees on an area of 10 km ². It is a classic example of oasis agriculture on the terrace and is stocked by over two hundred springs, which produce about sixty million gallons of water a day. The best way to explore the palm grove is on foot or by bicycle, which can be rented at the entrance.
Sousse is the third most important city in Tunisia as well as a prominent port. Is also the most popular tourist destination. The long beach that extends north from the town to the tourist enclave of Port el-Kantaoui is its main hook. However, Susa is not limited to the row of hotels that surround its shores.
The old medina contains quite a number of monuments. The walls are impressive, with an area of 2.25 km and a height of 8 m, fortified with a series of solid square turrets. The Ribat, a strong small square, was built at the end of the eighth century AD Presents a vantage point round which allows uploading and is an excellent viewpoint over the city. The austere Great Mosque, with its towers and crenellated walls, more reminiscent of a strong to a mosque. The Museum of Susa, which occupies the citadel (Kasbah) in the southwest corner of the medina, shows several of the most beautiful mosaics in the country.
Anywhere else in Tunisia organized tourism is so excessive as in the village of Matmata, 400 km south of the capital, on the southeast coast. The houses of this village troglodyte underground have proved an irresistible claim for tourists or travelers who access the site in vehicles after a safari through the desert.
It is not difficult to understand why coaches do not let go of. The passage follows an almost surreal air, with both a lunar environment. Surely that is why it was chosen as a filming location for scenes from the movie Desert Wars. Berbers built houses on the ground over a thousand years ago to escape the extreme heat of summer. All the houses are virtually identical, with a courtyard excavated to about 6 m deep in tunnels and rooms open on the sides. The larger with two or three yards and are accessed via a narrow staircase from the courtyard to the surface.
If you want to see Matmata self (there are always guides available), it is appropriate to visit the hotels. It should arrive in late afternoon, after the tourist buses have departed, and a walk beyond the hotel Ksar Amazigh. From there, there are good views of Matmata, which is behind, and the valley of Oued Barrak, to the north. In return, we must quench the thirst in the Sidi Driss hotel bar (the famous cantina in Star Wars) and I look to the hotel and the hotel Berbere Marhala. This will have seen the most notable of the city.
The port city of Bizerte, 65km north of the capital, is the largest in the north of Tunisia. Yet undiscovered by mass tourism, is one of the reasons why it deserves a visit. Acceptable has beaches close to town, but its attraction lies in the architecture of the neighborhood's old port.
The huge citadel (Kasbah) is the most imposing structure of the old town with its massive walls descollando on the northern entrance to the port. Was originally a Byzantine strong built in the sixth century AD, the present was erected by the Ottomans in the seventeenth century. The strong small (ksibah) is the southern bastion of defense of the port, was built by the Byzantines and changed over the centuries. At present has its interesting Oceanographic Museum.
Bouchoucha Place, which is really more a street than a square, is located in the heart of the Ottoman city, flanked by the Old Port to the east and west Medina. The area offers lively fish markets, the Grand Mosque, built in 1652 with a striking octagonal minaret, and the source of Youssef Dey, inlaid with beautiful, dates from 1642. The so-called strong Spanish dominates the city from the hill that comes north of the medina, is actually Turkish, and was built in the year 1570 AD
Ichkeul National Park
Classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, this national park, 30 km southwest of Bizerte is a sanctuary for birds of passage, especially in winter when the lake Ichkeul and surrounding marshes are home to over two hundred thousand migratory waterbirds across Europe. These include a considerable number of coots, mallards silbones, various species of ducks and lesser-known birds such as red and purple Ansar common, the emblem of the park.
Ichkeul is the only national park in Tunisia with facilities for visitors, but does not have lodging and camping is prohibited.
Mahdia is one of the few cities in the central Tunisian coast that has not yet been exploited tourism. It is a quiet enclave, founded in the year 916 AD and located on a small peninsula about 200 km southeast of the capital. Medina has a fascinating, and when founded the famous historian Ibn Khaldoun visited during the fourteenth century and described as Mehdia the richest city on the coast of Barbary.
Walking tour take about two hours. The el-Skif Kahla, solid fortified gate access is all that remains of the original city and has some incredible views from above. This opens the narrow, cobbled main street, Rue Ali Bey, who was formerly the souk and now collects an increasing number of tourism jobs. Heading east to the Place du Caire, the passenger will be presented with a square shaded by trees, vines and cafes. The ornate arched entrance and the octagonal minaret in the south of it belong to the mosque of Mustafa Hamza, built in 1772, when the plaza was the center of the Turkish quarter.
Continuing east on the Rue Ali Bey, is the Great Mosque. Built in 1965, is a replica of the original, in the year 921 AD, which was destroyed in 1554 by Spanish troops who beat a retreat. Non-Muslims can enter the courtyard outside the hours of prayer. Nearby, you can admire the tiny minaret of the mosque Slimane Hamza, and if it continues eastwards, towards the Borj el-Kebir, is a sixteenth century fortress situated on the highest point of the peninsula. Leaving the fort are a cemetery and a lighthouse near the remains of the original port.
The recommended beaches of Tunisia are around the northern towns of el-Ghar Melhado, Tabarka and Bizerte, preferable to the crowded tourist areas. Those further south are theoretically good, but not suited for swimming, the most recommended is in Aghir.
The country is beginning to discover the possibilities of outdoor recreation. The forest in the mountains of Kroumirie around Ain Draham, has enormous potential, but not yet drawn detailed maps. Most popular at the moment are the camel tours, for which you are advised to move Zaafrane, 12 km southwest of Douz, where you can negotiate from a walk one hour to eight days of a trip to the oasis. If the traveler is caught in the charms of the desert in some places you can go skiing in the dunes and racing yachts in the sand.
Birding is a popular activity, although the country has few resident species, but it is an important stop for migratory birds during spring and autumn. Ichkeul National Park in the north is the best site to contemplate.
Upload balloon and seaplane flights are two relatively new options to see the country from the air which can be conducted in Tozeur and Aghir respectively.
Tunisia may be the smallest country in northern Africa, but its strategic position has ensured a rich history. Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Ottomans and French have spoken in the region at some time in their history. The first to appear were probably a group of Homo Erectus make a few hundred thousand years. Accessed by the Northwest through the Sahara from East Africa. It is believed that what is now arid desert was covered in those days of forest, scrub and grass savanna, similar to the plains of Kenya and Tanzania at present. The first clear sign of human habitation was discovered near Kebili, located south of town near an oasis, and dates back some two hundred thousand years ago.
The first of Tunisia today that Utica was settled by the Phoenicians in the twelfth century BC Used it as a stopover en route from its port of origin, Tire (in the current Lebanon) to the Iberian Peninsula. They established a chain of docks along the North African coast, including Hadrumnetum (Sousse) and Hippo Diarrhytus (Bizerte). But the port that occupies a prominent place in history books is Carthage, arch in Rome. It became the most important city of the western Phoenician world in the seventh century BC, especially after the decline of Tire, and the most powerful African Mediterranean early V century BC His power continued until the Punic wars, which pitted Rome (263-146 BC). But Carthage was completely wiped out after the defeat of Hannibal to Scipio, its inhabitants were sold as slaves and the region became a province of the Empire.
The emperor Augustus consolidated Carthage city in 44 BC as Julius Caesar claimed his predecessor, proconsular Design Capital of Africa. The region served as a granary for Rome, to the first century AD, the plains of Tunisia met over 60% of the wheat Empire. The Romans founded cities and colonies on the plains and the coast of Tunisia, the region experiencing its period of greatest prosperity of the Flavian dynasty and severe, its ruins are the main attractions today.
At the beginning of V century, when the power of Rome was in a state of irreversible decline, the Vandals decided that it was ripe for conquest. In ten years, made his capital in Carthage. Dispossessed of their practices away from the native Berber population, which formed small kingdoms and began assaulting the colonies vandals. The Byzantines of Constantinople, who seized the territory in 533 and kept it over the following 150 years, also clashed with the guerrillas Berbers. During the Byzantine period there was an artistic and economic renaissance.
Islam made its appearance in the seventh century when Arab armies spread from Arabia and Egypt conquered quickly. His first foray dates from 647. The Muslims defeated the Byzantines in Sufetula, Kairouan make up their base camp in the year 670. In Kairouan as its capital, the region became a province of the Islamic empire.
Berbers adopted Islam, but they rose up against the cruel to them Arabs. The uprisings continued until 909, when a group of Berber Shiites, the Fatimids, regrouped and snatched the Berber tribes of North Africa to the Arabs. Cairo was founded in the year 973 and established his capital in Mahdia, but the unit was soon broken, the tribes began fighting among themselves and North Africa was slowly reduced to ruins. This weakness was exploited by the Normans, who occupied the island of Jerba in 1134.
Conflicts arose again when the area was involved in the rivalry between Spain and the Ottoman Empire in the mid-sixteenth century. Tunisia changed hands half a dozen times in about fifty years before the Turks finally conquered in the year 1574 and become part of Ottoman territory until the nineteenth century, when France became the new power of the western Mediterranean.
In 1881 France, under the pretext of responding to attacks on the border of its Algerian colony, sent 30,000 troops to Tunisia, which were soon to occupy the capital and force the bey ruler to cede power. Were gradually seizing the best land in Tunisia. The defeat of France early in World War II allowed the Tunisian nationalists intensified their campaign for independence. One man in particular, Habib Bourguiba, leader of the nationalist Neo-Destour, undertook the task of putting the country at the forefront of international politics.
Tunisia gained independence officially March 20, 1956, with Bourguiba as prime minister. The following year, the country became a Republic and Bourguiba became its first president. The president promoted political and social changes of far-reaching: considering religion as a brake on progress of the country undertook to reduce their role in society outside of the Orthodox influence in their traditional fields such as education and justice. The Shariah courts (Islamic law) were abolished, and lands that had funded the mosques and religious institutions seized.
Bourguiba was president of the country until 1987, when his Interior Minister Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, won the presidency and Bourguiba was declared mentally incapacitated to govern and that he had "retired" to a palace on the outskirts of Monastir .
Ben Ali appease the Islamic opposition, making a pilgrimage to Mecca and ordered to observe the fast of Ramadan. Currently the opposition parties remain in hiding and there is censorship in the media. In the October 1999 elections, Ben Ali won by an absolute majority. After the death of Bourguiba in April 2000 raised widespread and obvious discrepancies in the regime of Ben Ali and the riots are becoming clearer.
Tunisia culture & people
The Berbers were the first settlers in Tunisia but, over the centuries, successive waves of migrants settled Phoenicians, Jews, Romans, Vandals and Arabs in the country. In addition there was a considerable influx of Muslims from Spain and the Ottoman Turks also contributed their bit for the ethnic mix.
Islam is the official religion of the country. Despite an undeniable religious revival, particularly among youth and the unemployed, the nation is still fairly liberal. There is a small community of practicing Jews in the capital and the island of Jerba, and about twenty thousand Roman Catholics.
Thanks in large part to the efforts of secular and socialist former president Habib Bourguiba, the conditions for women are better than the other countries of the Islamic world (in the eyes of Westerners, at least). This agent outlaw polygamy and divorce by repudiation, and also placed limits on the tradition of the wedding subsidies, establishing a women 17 years of age to marry and giving them the right to reject the proposals of marriage. Your opinion on the veil ( "an odious rag"), explains its insignificant presence in the moment.
Yet, traditions are not easily lost, and is recommended for travelers to dress discreetly. Men shorts are considered to be in underwear and in specific situations can cause outrage. Public demonstrations of affection between couples are frowned upon in most parts of the country.
Today the nation is virtually bilingual: Arabic is the language of government, but nearly everyone is fluent in French. This was the language in which teaching is conducted in the early years of Bourguiba and still is taught from age six. At school is also studied English and German, but it is difficult to read in either language outside the main tourist areas. Berber dialect chelha or tachelnit only heard in the villages isolated.
The hammam (public baths) are one of the centers of life in Tunisia, as in all of northern Africa and the Middle East, and are considered places indicated not only for washing but for relaxing and chatting. All cities have at least a hammam, with separate sections for men and women (sometimes in completely separate buildings). Men need not take anything, they are given a Fouta (Cotton towel) to move in the hammam. Women are expected to bring your own towel (and are in their underwear when washing, so it is recommended to bring dry clothes to change afterwards). A session includes access to the bath, a sauna and steam Kassa, a vigorous scrub with a coarse mitten.
In Tunisia, the art has been greatly influenced by the cultural mix of the country. Architectural styles, for example, range from Punic and Roman contributions to the houses of alpine red tiles Ain Draham, the Islamic architecture of the Arab medinas and underground dwellings of the Berbers in the south.
Malouf, which means normal, is the name given to a form of traditional Arabic music, which has become a kind of institution in the country. Among the principal styles of classical music include the Tunisian Nouba (the oldest of Andalusian origin), the chghoul and bachraf (of Turkish origin). Musicians, singers and composers include all known El-Azifet (a rarity in this part of the world, because it is a group composed exclusively by women), Khemais Tarnane, Raoul Journou, Saliha, Saleh Mehdi, Ali Riahi, Hedi Jouini and Fethi Khairi, although it will be hard to find outside the country.
Tunisia have been discovered in large number of tiles in an excellent state of preservation due to its warm and dry. Dating from the sixth century A.D. II and come mostly in private houses and public baths. The Bardo Museum in the capital, has a magnificent collection and the Museum of El-Jem.
Introduced by the French, the painting is a very contemporary art in Tunisia, with styles that run from the shapes of Hedi Turki and free up the intricate Arabic calligraphy of NJA Mahdaoui. Under the French mandate, the Europeans moved to Tunisia in North Africa under the sun paint, perhaps the most famous was Paul Klee, who visited the country for the first time in 1914. The art galleries are located in the capital and the surrounding area, and highlights the artists' haven of Sidi Bou Saïd.